Tooth replacements (crowns, bridges and dentures)

1. Permanent, fixed tooth restorations


When preparing a crown the dentist grinds down the tooth, takes a precision impression of the tooth stump (prep) based on which the dental technician moulds the master cast and prepares the crown. The crown is intended to restore, strengthen and embellish the tooth. Crowns can be indicated for various reasons:

  • if part of the tooth has chipped off or has worn out and can no longer be restored with a filling or inlay in the long term.
  • Replacement of an old crown.
  • Provision of crowns to root-canal treated teeth.
  • If the shape, position and colour of the tooth does not live up to the patient’s demands.
  • Implants replacing missing teeth also require crowns.


Crowns used at our clinic:

All-ceramic crowns (E.Max pressed ceramic)

The substructure of an all-ceramic crown is prepared from pressed ceramic with a novel technology that makes it tooth-coloured, metal-free and lifelike on account of its translucency. Ceramic is fused layer by layer onto the pressed ceramic substructure gradually developing the perfect shape and tooth colour. All-ceramic crowns are chiefly used with front teeth, being as they are the most aesthetic crowns. They are not suitable for long span bridges replacing multiple missing molars as they are not sufficiently solid.

Suitable for: thin veneers, inlays, all-ceramic crowns, bridge, implant suprastructures and implant crowns.


Ceramic veneers (E.Max veneer)

Fémkerámia híd és aranykerámia korona fotója

Ceramic veneers are prepared when grinding down too much dentin or tooth enamel is undesired. They usually serve to rectify chipped teeth, discolorations and jammed teeth etc. on otherwise sound teeth. E.Max veneers may also be suitable for fixing crooked gaps. Veneers are prepared by a dental technician and then cemented onto teeth by the dentist


Zirconia crowns

This innovative system combines the solidity of metal-ceramic crowns with the aesthetics of metal-free crowns. Underlying this system is zirconia. Nowadays increasingly, more is heard about the potential effects of metal allergies in dentistry. Accordingly, a new material had to be devised that had the same mechanical properties as dental metal but which triggered no allergic reactions from the human body. With 30 years on the market, Tosoh’s products are completely homogeneous zirconia blocks developed with a sophisticated technology. Since zirconia induces no allergic reactions, it is biocompatible. Its additional good qualities include bad heat conductivity, which ensures that patients will never complain about hot or cold sensitivity. This type of crown is also prepared using the novel computer technology known as CAD/CAM. Additionally, zirconia substructures are tooth-coloured, hence ceramic crowns beautifully blend in with it, and if the gum recedes at the tooth neck in later years, no dark grey lining will be visible.

Luting materials used for gluing metal-free permanent tooth replacements (crown, bridge, veneer)


Variolink is a dual-bonding, light-curing adhesive compound that ensures the bonding of highly aesthetic ceramic and composite restorations. The luting cements form a durable bond between the tooth’s structure and the tooth replacement material significantly contributing to the long-term success of indirect restorations.


Metal-ceramic crowns

Metal-ceramic crowns have a metal substructure onto which ceramic is fused layer by layer. The more layers are fused onto the substructure the more beautiful and lifelike the crown will become. This solution is ideally suited both for single-unit crowns in the lateral area as well as long-span bridges. The metal substructure is strong enough to permanently retain long bridges and since the substructure is fully covered by ceramic, it is aesthetic as well. There is chemical adhesion between the metal substructure and the ceramics burnt thereon, further enhancing stability. One of the greatest downsides of metal-ceramic crowns, on the other hand, is the dark grey colour of the metal substructure which may lend the tooth a greyish hue at the tooth’s neck, should the gum recede over the years. Furthermore, if the ceramic chips off from the metal substructure due to an accident the crown will be an ungainly sight that can only be resolved by preparing a new crown. Therefore, patients are ill-advised to open beer bottles, to chew chicken bone or wear a piercing with any type of ceramic crowns. 🙂


Picture of a metal-ceramic bridge and gold crown

Replacements at our clinic are prepared according to the IPS InLine technology. These are durable teeth conveying a lifelike effect if properly taken care of. The underlying metal substructure is always made of precious metal. It can be prepared from gold, platinum or gold according as we want a warm or a glaring white look. Gold substructures have excellent physical properties since gold has both disinfectant and antibacterial properties. As a result, the crown has an extended lifetime. In former times, this used to be the “high-end” replacement tooth but what with the rise of the price of gold its “competitors” (i.e. Zirconia or E.Max crowns) have pushed this replacement type to the background. The full substructure is encased with tooth-coloured IPS InLine ceramic manufactured by the Liechtenstein-based company Ivoclar Vivadent.


Implant crowns

An implant is in fact an artificial root screwed into the jaw. Once the implant has osseointegrated into the jaw, the new crown can be prepared. An implant suprastructure (abutment) is screwed into the implant using the appropriate torque (35 Ncm) which has a role similar to that of the filed tooth stump (prep), namely, holding the crown in position. This abutment is in fact tucked deep between the implant and the crown. In the mirror, the patient can only see the implant crown or the bridge.

Implant borne crowns can be made of the same material as conventional crowns intended for tooth stumps (preps). The dentists will recommend the material of the implant crown and the suitable solution will jointly be selected with the patient.

In terms of material the following implant crowns exist:

  1. E.Max implant crown
  2. Zirconia implant crown
  3. Metal-ceramic implant crown

Implant crowns with E.Max pressed ceramic and zirconia substructures are chiefly recommended for the front region based on aesthetic considerations, since in this instance life-like crowns are crucial both as regards colour and as regards transparency. These are metal-free crowns with transparent, tooth-coloured substructures onto which porcelain layers are fused ensuring the best optical properties such as transparency translucency and colour temperature. The most difficult task for a dentist is to replace “just” one crown in the front region as it poses a serious challenge for the dentist to prepare the ideal replacement tooth in the appropriate shape, colour and size. These crowns are prepared according to cutting-edge manufacturing standards (machined from pressed ceramic blocks using CAD/CAM technology) and are obviously in the highest price range. They have the additional benefit that there is little likelihood that a grey metal lining will show around the crown’s collar in later years.

Metal-ceramic implant crowns are the strongest of their kind and highly tolerant of masticatory forces, and hence best suited to replace lateral and posterior teeth. The layered ceramic fusing technique ensures that metal-ceramic implant crowns are aesthetic but due to their dark metal substructure, different optical properties may prevail as compared to metal-free crowns. In this group of crowns too, metal-ceramic crowns are the most reasonably priced ones and a good dental technician is sure to achieve outstanding aesthetic results.

In terms of the type of retention, there exist 2 kinds of implant crowns:

  • cement-retained implant crowns
  • screw-retained implant crowns

Cement-retained implant crowns are glued onto the abutment using provisional or permanent luting cement. It is immensely important that a thread (gingival retraction cord) is placed between the gum and the abutment in order to enlarge the gingival sulcus since cement spilling over may remain under the gum once cured. This is particularly dangerous if the implant is placed deep under the gum since there remains a non-cleanable surface to which microorganisms may adhere causing inflammation and infection or the incidental rejection of the implant. However, with a gingival retraction cord placed inside in anaesthesia, all surplus adhesive can be removed with ease. Cement-retained implant crowns are way more aesthetic than screw-retained crowns, as their top is not bored through, which allows the dental technician to design a tooth-coloured masticatory surface in line with the rest of the crown. They are furthermore less expensive than screw-retained crowns, which require a more expensive abutment. That said, they have the major downside that once the crown gets damaged due to an accident or the implant gets inflamed (peri-implantitis develops) which necessitates treatment, the only way to access the area to be treated is by cutting off the crown which needs to be prepared anew.


The major benefit of screw-retained crowns is that whatever happens, e. g. the ceramic chips off from the crown or an inflammation (peri-implantitis) develops, the crown can be screwed off, the inflamed implant can be treated and the crown rectified, in other words, interventions are a great deal easier. On the other hand, screw-retained crowns are costlier to prepare than cement-retained crowns and they fall behind in terms of aesthetics. Due to the different axial inclination of the implant, the bore of the screw retaining the abutment and the crown opens onto the surface of the tooth. Although once abutment is screwed in, the dentist prepares a matching aesthetic, tooth-coloured filling on top of the crown, but that will not be on a par with that fused from ceramic by the dental technician. For future comfort, certain compromises need to be made as to aesthetics.


Implant crowns made with CAD/CAM technology represent also state-of-the-art accuracy. The dental technician using conventional multi-layer ceramic veneering does not mould this type of crown, but the tooth’s shape, colour, etc. are designed with a computer and the crown is milled by “lathe” from a block of pressed ceramic or zirconia.


Implant abutment

Cement-retained abutments are used under implant crowns. This prefabricated abutment is screwed into the middle of the implant by the dentist and secured using 35 Ncm of torque. It renders the dental technician’s job fast as it is available on-hand and ready for installing the crown. As for its material, the abutment can either be metal-free (pressed ceramics, zirconia) or titanium (metal).


The screw-retained abutment is designed, moulded and cast by the dental technician. It has the advantage that an aesthetic, accurate and custom-designed crown can be placed on top of it. With screw-retained abutments, the abutment and the crown are built together and a screw fastens the abutment-cum-crown to the implant. It has the downside, however, that it takes a slightly longer time to prepare and is more expensive.


CAD/CAM implant abutments are prepared with the use of a novel technology but take a longer time to prepare than plain, stock abutments do. They also cost roughly twice as much but you receive a highly sophisticated and custom-made tooth replacement in exchange.



Bridgework is fixed tooth restoration that consists of several crowns linked together. The bridge replaces one or more missing teeth filling up the gap between two adjacent teeth. When preparing a bridge the adjacent teeth requiring filing and a precision impression needs to be taken of the filed teeth (prep) and the dental technician prepares the bridge the same way as the crowns. Bridgework is no longer the preferred method of tooth restoration, as it often requires completely sound teeth to be grind down. Patients therefore tend to opt for tooth implantation. The main advantages of a tooth-borne bridge are its affordability and short lead-time as opposed to implant borne bridges, which are more expensive and require several months’ healing time.

Bridges are made using the same technology and materials as crowns, so you may also want to read the section describing crowns.

As regards their material, the following bridges are available:

E.Max pressed ceramic bridges

E.Max pressed ceramic bridges are used in the area of anterior teeth or the replacement of lateral teeth. In terms of aesthetics, this is considered the cutting edge method.



Zirconia bridges

This is a heavy-duty bridge highly tolerant of masticatory forces making it suitable for replacing several missing posterior teeth. E.Max and zirconia bridges yield better results as regards aesthetics but are more expensive than metal-ceramic bridges.




Metal-ceramic bridges

Metal-ceramic bridges are the most resilient and durable tooth replacements, excellently suited for the replacement of posterior and lateral teeth and even convenient for the replacement of long-span edentulous areas. It is best bridge type in terms price. However, it has the drawback that if the gum recedes from the dental cervix in later years the edge of the bridge may sport a greyish hue, which can be particularly disconcerting if the patient has a high smile line.

Fogkerámia híd


Implant-retained bridge

Implant-retained bridges are tooth replacements supported by implant bars inserted into the jaw, that is, the pillar of the bridge is not a filed tooth stump (prep) but an implant.

As regards their material, the same types of fixed implant bridges are available as detailed in the section on implant crowns.

  1. Max pressed ceramic implant bridge
  2. Zirconia implant bridge
  3. Metal-ceramic implant bridge

To sum up, metal-free implant bridges such as E.Max and zirconia are more aesthetic and more expensive and are chiefly used for front teeth. Metal-ceramic circular bridges are designed for heavy-duty use and can be attached to anything between 2 implants to 8 implants.

As regards their retention, implant bridges are manufactured with the same technique as implant crowns and display the same advantages and disadvantages.

Cement-retained implant bridges (see a detailed description in the section on cement-retained implant crowns)



Materials used for the permanent cementing of metal-ceramic tooth replacements (crown, bridge)
  • GC FujiCEM 2

GC FujiCEM 2 is a unique resin modified glass ionomer luting cement designed to facilitate and accelerate luting and to achieve the best possible results. Thanks to its clinically insoluble ionic bonding it ensures extremely good bond strength even at 3 μm of film thickness. It is used for luting metal-ceramic and metal-free crowns and bridges and ordinary ceramic inlays.

Manufactured by GC, type: Fuji cem 2, Japan.

  • Ketac cem

Ketac cem is durable and reliable luting cement used with permanent crowns preventing the migration of the crowns. The chemical reactions taking place between the crowns and the cement ensure a chemical bond.

Manufactured by 3M Espe AG.

2. Permanent removable dentures

Steps of preparing removable dentures intended for implants

  • Three dimensional X-rays (CT) in DICOM in ICat format.
  • During a personal consultation the dentist examines the oral cavity and to map the anatomic relations of the jawbone using CT.
  • The dentist draws up the treatment plan.
  • Surgical phase: the implants are installed.
  • A 3 to 6 months’ healing time ensues during which the implants osseointegrate (integrate into the bone).
  • Prosthetic phase: once healed, the dentist takes impressions of the implants integrated into the jaw. Gnathology and bite registration serve to determine the patient’s bite and the aesthetics of the teeth. The bar and denture are then prepared by the dental technician in a laboratory. The dentist fixes the abutments, viz. bars or Locator systems, as the case may be, on the implants, to which the overdenture (i. e. a removable denture ) is attached. Check-ups and minor bite corrections are indispensible every few days as the patient’s muscles and the jaw joint (temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, for short) require time to adjust to the new tooth replacement before everything comes into alignment. Such check-ups are worth the trouble and time as an inappropriately adjusted bite may overload the denture and the implants. Undue pressure is particularly dangerous for implants as it may bring about bone resorption and cause the implant to come off and the teeth to break off from the denture.

Overdentures supported by 2 or 4 implants attaching to Locator abutments

This solution is ideally suited for patients with insufficient bone in the lateral region of the jawbone or a more expensive circular bridge is beyond the patient’s means. Such removable dentures can be firmly fixed to the implants and seamlessly align with the jaw ridge. Overdentures borne both by an implant and the jaw ridge are referred to as combined implant-mucosa supported overdentures.

Implant-retained overdentures are attached with two kinds of abutments:

  1. Locator abutments
  2. Retention bar abutments

If we opt for Locator attachment, the tooth replacement is finished in 5 days. A snap-in Locator abutment is placed on the implant fastening the denture on the jaw. The Locator system has the benefit that the permanent overdenture takes less time to finish and is less expensive than the retention bar system.

Figure: Locator abutments in the mouth with an overdenture


Overdentures borne by 4 implants retained by retention bars and Straumann dolder bars

Retention bar-supported overdentures perform better in terms of stability and durability. A screw-retained implant bar linking the 4 implant is moulded and cast from metal by the dental technician. The denture will attach (snap) onto this bar with Straumann attachements. This bar attachment is finished in 10 days.

Figure: Implant retention bar prepared for Straumann implants with an overdenture


Combined prosthesis

The so-called combined prostheses (a combination of fixed and removable prostheses) are required when the patient is not eligible for a fixed tooth restoration due to insufficient teeth or because the implant cannot be installed for one reason or the other (insufficient bone; the required implant fixtures are beyond the patient’s means). They take 10 days to prepare and are considered as one of the most difficult dental technician jobs. A bridge is prepared for the existing teeth onto which a partial denture is placed. This denture is linked to the bridge on two sides with a hidden anchorage which ensures a better alignment with the bridge as well as better stability, and tolerates bigger masticatory force than an ordinary clip-on denture. A combined prosthesis consists of 2 parts:

  1. Bridge (fixed part)
  2. Denture (removable part)


Telescopic metal -frame overdenture

A telescopic metal-frame overdenture consists of 3 parts:

  1. primary telescopic crown
  2. secondary telescopic crown
  3. removable overdenture

Telescopic dentures are secured by means of telescopic crowns. This kind of denture is prepared when the remaining teeth are suitable for the retention of removable dentures. The remaining teeth undergo root canal treatment and preparation, and have a precision impression taken and primary and secondary telescopic crowns are prepared for them by the dental technician. The primary telescopic crown is cemented onto the prepared tooth inside the mouth, while the secondary telescopic crown is incorporated into the complete removable denture outside the mouth. The method is simple and effective: the secondary telescopic crowns slide neatly into position on top of the primary telescopic crowns, retaining the dentures on the jawbone. Its benefits include:

  • it is completely aesthetic as the denture completely covers the few teeth under the denture.
  • A lose or decayed tooth can easily be extracted at any time, since it suffices to remove the denture, have it relined by the dental technician and have the missing tooth substituted with plastic matching the denture, a procedure that will not take longer than a day.
  • It is a great deal more aesthetic and durable than a metal clasp removable denture.


Partial removable metal clasp denture

If in a dental arch the number of natural teeth allows for no fixed replacement or bridge, a partial removable dental plate can be prepared to restore masticatory function and facial aesthetics. A partial removable dental plate is a tooth replacement that requires more space than natural teeth as it covers the edentulous jaw ridge (also substituting atrophic bone) as well as the palate. It is secured with metal clasps. The simplest and least expensive solution, it is the method par excellence if the patient still has their old teeth and bridge and desires no complete overhaul, merely a cheap and quick “repair”.


Complete removable denture

A complete dental plate is a removable denture prepared in case of complete edentulism. One means of restoring complete edentulism is by a complete removable dental plate. Its advantage over implant-retained overdentures is its short lead-time and inexpensiveness. However, it has the downside that the denture exerts continuous pressure on the jawbone resulting in poorer blood supply and jawbone atrophy. Implant-supported dentures transfer masticatory forces to the jawbone keeping them in motion and enhancing blood circulation which slows down bone deterioration.

The denture serves to replace not only teeth but also the gum. The denture rests on the underlying foundation consisting of the mucosa and bone. The denture is held in position by the facial muscles, vacuum effect, occlusal pressure and gravitation.


A complete removable denture

The consequences of complete edentulism:

  • impaired masticatory function and inability to chew, conducive to digestive disorders and the development of ulcers.
  • Phonation disorders due to the change of shape and volume of the oral cavity, the proportion of soft and hard tissues; the position and shape of the tongue, as well as the shape and size of the jaw ridge.
  • Disfigured facial proportions and traits due to the loss of support provided by the facial muscles; enlarged dimples.
  • The development of psychic inhibitions, behaviour disorders.

The duty of the complete denture:

  • Restoration of the masticatory function.
  • The correction of facial traits altered by edentulism.
  • Aesthetic restoration.
  • Prevention of wear and damage to the temporomandibular joint.
  • Prevention and correction of phonation and speech disorders.
  • Prevention and treatment of psychic disorders.

Parts of the denture:

  1. A lingual part resting on the mucosa-bone foundation for conveying occlusal force to the gum and the jawbone.
  2. Artificial gum intended to restore soft tissue aesthetics.
  3. Artificial teeth intended to restore the smile line, the facial traits, aesthetics and masticatory function.

The preparation of a complete denture is a complicated task. When preparing the prosthesis several factors have to be taken into account:

  • How long has the patient been edentulous?
  • Has he/she had a tooth replacement before?
  • What is the condition of the oral cavity?

No two jawbones are alike. For each patient, a custom-made denture is designed to fit their individual parameters. The preparation of the denture requires minute precision both on the dentist’s and the dental technician’s part since the denture is held in position by vacuum, gravitation, the relationship of soft and hard tissues and an accurately fitting lingual bar.

Denture materials used at our clinic

Complete and partial removable dentures are made of self-curing acrylate produced by IVOCLAR VIVADENT. The tooth sets used are IVOSTAR and GNATHOSTAR makes. Due to the exceptionally mouth-resistant acrylate plastic used, such teeth can safely be advised to patients allergic to acrylate. Overall, these dentures are very accurate and dense and life-like both as regards shape and colour, conveying a natural feel. Manufactured by: IVOCLAR VIVADENT, Type: IVOSTAR, GNATHOSTAR, Liechtenstein.


Denture reline and rebase

Reline is a denture repair intended to repair the old denture to better fit the jaw ridge. The benefit associated with plastic dentures is that they are easy and cheap to repair, e. g., should a tooth chip off, it can easily be repaired without preparing the full replacement again.

A reline can be performed by the dental technician in a laboratory or by the dentist at the clinic alongside the dental chair.

We distinguish 2 main types of reline materials:

  1. soft reline materials
  2. hard reline materials

Following tooth extractions patients get an immediate removable denture worn during the time of healing as implantation will only fall due in 3 to 6 months’ time. During implantation, the gum is incised, often with the bone rectified and levelled, and the shape and surface of the jawbone on which the denture had snugly rested is altered in the process. This change can be rectified by gluing soft reline material beneath the old denture making the old denture comfortable and easy to wear even for the period of osseointegration. Soft relines are mainly made for provisional dentures following tooth extractions and implantation. Under a soft reline, less pressure is exerted on the jawbone and the gum, which enhances blood circulation and accelerates healing.

Hard relines are prepared when repairing permanent dentures. Over time, permanent dentures tend to waggle on the jaw ridge. Unfortunately, this is an ordinary physiological process as, however slowly, the bone deteriorates. This can be levelled or rectified by a reline every 3 to 4 years.

If you experience such waggling consult your dentist as this may increase bone deterioration and lead to an unbalanced bite chipping off existing teeth, bridges, in other words, the masticatory function may gradually deteriorate.


3. Provisional tooth replacements

Provisional crowns or bridges prepared by the Scutan method

With fixed replacements (crowns or bridges) the tooth is drilled and prepared for a precision impression on the first day based on which the dental technician prepares the permanent crown or bridge. Depending on the number of crowns, the permanent crowns are prepared in 5 to 10 days. For this period, an immediate chairside provisional crown or bridge is prepared on the spot (direct provisional crown). No patient leaves the clinic without teeth. Benefits associated with provisional crowns are as follows:

  • protects the prep against the so-called “dentin wound” developing in the course of filing which is extremely sensitive to cold, warm and other chemical stimuli. Freshly filed live teeth are like our hands without skin following an accident: they are oversensitive to everything; even something as ordinary as breathing may “cause pain”.
  • It holds the prepared tooth stumps in position preventing them from migration caused by masticatory forces until such time as the crowns or bridges are prepared. If the tooth stump migrates the tooth replacement will not fit in, only if pressed hard or pried… and when forcing it into position the bridge may come under undue strain, the ceramic may disengage from the substructure, and the preparation of the crown and ceramic coping may start all over again much to the delight of all and sundry – including the patient, dentist and dental technician J.
  • Aesthetic corrections or trial dentures can easily be made from this material, allowing patients to avail themselves of a simple, quick and inexpensive trial fitting with the help of which they can easily imagine their prospective tooth replacement.
  • Chipped off teeth, metal posts etc. can easily be covered with a provisional crown.
  • It is quick and inexpensive to repair.

Due to its drawbacks patients are not advised to “leave the vicinity” of the dental clinic, as:

  • its material is of inferior quality as compared to that of the crown prepared by the dental technician, wearing time should therefore not exceed 2 to 3 weeks, by which time the permanent ceramic tooth replacement is prepared.
  • It is less aesthetic than a provisional crown prepared in the laboratory.
  • It is more susceptible to breakage.
  • It is likelier to get discoloured.
  • It is glued on with a weaker adhesive so that the dentist can easily remove it a week later, similarly, it is likelier to come off the tooth preparation and may have to be glued back on several times.


    Long-term provisional crown or bridge made using the PMMA method

    Long-term provisional crowns or bridges are prepared by the dental technician (indirect provisional crown). The dentist prepares the teeth and takes a precision impression thereof and the dental technician prepares the long-term provisional crown in 3 to 5 days. Such fixed temporary replacements are indicated in the following instances:

    • with neglected periodontal diseases it often occurs that the infected gum bleeds to such an extent that no proper impression can be taken of the tooth preparations. In this case a pre-prosthetic treatment is in order (scaling, open or closed curettage, etc.) to eliminate the infection around the dental cervix. Healing may take up to 6 months, and flawless impressions for the permanent replacements can only be taken once the wounds have completely healed.
    • Many chipped or carious teeth require root canal treatment and a post and core procedure in several sittings, in other words, 2 or 3 hours’ dental treatment will not do. In such cases the teeth are filed and a long-term provisional bridge is prepared that can be removed each time the teeth underneath undergo several days’ treatment.
    • If occlusion is out of alignment, the patient has an incorrect bite (malocclusion) and a gnathological treatment or bite correction is indicated, a long-term provisional bridge is prepared for 6 months and we examine if the new bite with the new teeth is comfortable. The permanent replacement is only prepared once improvement is observed.
    • Beautiful test and diagnostic crowns can be prepared for the patient to see what kind of teeth (colour and shape, length, etc.) they are going to have. The patient goes home with the beautiful new long-term provisional crowns and may jointly decide with their family if the new crowns live up to their expectations. On returning for the permanent replacement, the patient will have definite ideas as to what kind of teeth they desire “compared to this provisional one”. If the patient was content with the provisional crown, a photograph and an impression will be taken of it which will be used and duplicated as “reference material” by the dental technician in preparing the permanent crowns.

    Disadvantages associated with long-term provisional crowns:

    • it is more expensive than provisional crowns prepared by the dentist since it is made from a more durable, resistant and resilient material.
    • It takes several days to prepare.
    • It is glued on with a stronger luting cement, so when the patient returns to continue their treatment several weeks or months later it can only be removed by cutting off, in other words, a new one is required for the relevant week of treatment.


    Adhesives used for cementing provisional tooth replacements (crowns, bridges)

    GC Fuji TEMP LongTerme

    Crowns and bridges are not always glued on permanently. They are often glued on provisionally due to certain inflammations, pains or merely for the sake of “testing”. GC Fuji TEMP LT ensures a long term, secure temporary retention, and easy removal of bridges and crowns as necessary after a few weeks or months. It is easy to use, yet reliable.

    Manufactured by GC, típusa Fuji Temp LT, Japan

    Provisional, removable denture

    Provisional, removable dentures are made from flexible nylon denture material and are used as immediate dentures following tooth extractions and implantation in order for the patient not to go home toothless. Under normal circumstances it is hit-proof. It is translucent, light and thin and does not hinder the patient in their speech. It is highly recommended to patients nauseous and sensitive to acrylic, it is easy to get accustomed to and is highly popular.

    A provisional removable denture.


    4. Gnathology – the importance of correct bite registration

    Gnathology translates as the study of bite or chew and this science deals with correct occlusion (bite and chew). It is not only important that our teeth and replacement teeth are well-maintained. They should also ensure correct, efficient and comfortable chewing.

    Gnathology is a science dealing with the anatomy and operation of teeth and other elements participating in the act of biting such as the mandibles, masticatory muscles, temporo-mandibular joints, etc. For producing accurate and high-quality, replacement teeth (crowns, bridges, dentures) state-of-the-art and high-precision diagnostic devices and methods are used such as customised articulators, face-bows, supporting pin registration. For a perfect prosthodontics job not only is the accuracy and beauty of the replacement teeth important, equally important is the accurate registration of the maxilla-mandibular relationships, the position of the jaw joints and the anatomical properties of the jawbones. Simply put, it will not suffice to have a beautiful car, the wheels, the crankshaft, etc. all need to be well adjusted for a smooth drive.

    Customised articulators, face-bows, supporting pin registration fulfil the following roles:

    • the determination of the ideal, “rearmost” or “middlemost” position of the temporomandibular joints.
    • The determination of the centric relationship with Gothic arch tracing.
    • Registration of the axis of the condyle trajectory (relative to the skull).
    • The determination of occlusal height.
    • The registration of the correct anatomical and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joints.
    • The exchange of the occlusal data measured and registered between the dentist and the dental technician.
    Devices used for gnathological treatment, the determination of occlusal data and bite registration


    AMANN GIRRBACH ARTEX System is a comprehensive and customizable articulator by means of which the occlusal data and the ideal position of the temporomandibular joint, etc. can promptly and accurately be registered and forwarded from the dental clinic to the dental laboratory.

    Designed for daily use, it is made from strong steel based on 25 years’ experience and recognised the world over for its durability.

    Manufactured by Amann Girrbach ,Austria.



    Artex facebow


    With the help of a face-bow, all essential anatomic information necessary for the preparation of a perfect tooth replacement can be collected in a matter of minutes. The face-bow can accurately capture the axial position of the maxilla (upper jaw) relative to the skull.

    The face-bow opens in a symmetrical fashion ensuring that the midline can be precisely registered. Due to its ease and quickness of use, the patient experiences no discomfort at all.

    Manufactured by Amann Girrbach, Austria.rotofix2


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